Some of the common methods of binding books and other multi-page documents include:
Saddle-stitch binding: Using staples along the folds of the pages to bind them together.
Spiral binding: Wires in a spiral form threaded through punched holes along the binding edge of the papers. Allows the document to lay open flatly.
Plastic comb binding: Similar to spiral binding but using a tubular plastic piece with teeth that fit through rectangular holes punched into the binding edge.
Three-ring binding: Holes are punched into the pages and fitted into a binder.